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Any attempt, however, to define with greater precision the meaning of faculties, is sure to call forth vigorous protest.In fact, few psychological questions of similar importance have been the object of so many animated discussions, and, it may be added, of so many misunderstandings.Since minds differ not only by the actual contents of consciousness, but also, and chiefly, by the power which they have of experiencing different processes, it is clear that if this constitutes a real difference, it must itself be something real.So unavoidable is this conclusion, that some of the strongest opponents of faculties are at the same time the strongest defenders of the theory of psychical dispositions, which they postulate in order to explain the facts of memory, mental habit, and in general, the utilization, conscious or unconscious, of past experience.Sometimes, however, such expressions are used with the understanding that they are metaphors, and with the explicit or implicit warning that they must not be taken literally.At the other extreme are found psychologists -- and they are numerous today -- who refuse to concede any kind of reality whatsoever to faculties.This is a remarkable dictionary, exploring the vast and various symbols which abound in literature, religion, national identity and are found at the very heart of our dreams and sub-conscious.Compiled by an international team of experts, each entry is given its complete range of interpretations - sexual and spiritual, official and subversive, cultural and religious - to b This is a remarkable dictionary, exploring the vast and various symbols which abound in literature, religion, national identity and are found at the very heart of our dreams and sub-conscious.
These facts are the psychological basis for admitting faculties (from facere, to do), capacities ( capax, from capere, to hold), or powers (from posse, to be able; the Scholastics generally use the corresponding Latin term potentiæ ).
That the faculty theory has no essential connection with Catholic dogma is sufficiently evidenced by the fact that it has found, and still finds, opponents as well as advocates among Catholic theologians and philosophers.
Judging, therefore, the question on its own merits, it may be said that the doctrine of St.
But we are given some principles which must always be kept in mind ; for instance, "the faculties act only by the energy of the soul "; they have no energy of their own, for "they are not the agents".
Coming to more special applications, "it is not the intellect that understands, but the soul through the intellect " (Quæst. Again, the question is not asked whether the will is free, but whether man is free (Summa, I:83 ; I-II:13 ; De Veritate, xxiv; De Malo, vi).